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Dyslexia Services


Troy ISD is committed to providing students identified as having dyslexia with appropriate, research-based instruction and academic support to prepare them to be successful lifetime readers and writers.

Troy ISD has a district-wide plan that follows guidelines and procedures in the 2021 update to the Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders. (Link below.) View important changes to the 2021 Dyslexia Handbook, here.

Texas Dyslexia Handbook

2021 Updated Texas Dyslexia Handbook

Actualizacion Del Manual de Dislexia 2021

Dyslexia Defined

Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. Adopted by the International Dyslexia Association Board of Directors, November 2002.

What does that mean exactly?

Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability. Dyslexia refers to a cluster of symptoms that result in people having difficulty with specific language skills, particularly reading. Students with dyslexia usually experience difficulty with other language skills, such as spelling, writing, and pronouncing words. Dyslexia affects individuals throughout their lives; however, its impact can change at different stages in a person's life. It is referred to as a learning disability because dyslexia can make it very difficult for a student to succeed academically in the typical instructional environment, and will usually qualify a student for specialized reading instruction and accommodations. 

The primary characteristics of dyslexia are:

  • Difficulty reading words in isolation
  • Difficulty accurately decoding unfamiliar words
  • Difficulty with oral reading (slow, inaccurate, or labored)
  • Difficulty spelling 

What misconceptions exist regarding dyslexia?

It is equally important to understand what dyslexia is not. It is a myth that individuals with dyslexia "read backward.” Their spelling can look jumbled at times, not because they read or see words backward, but because they have trouble remembering letter symbols for sounds and letter patterns in words. Dyslexia is not a disease and, therefore, there is no cure. Individuals with dyslexia do not have a lower level of intelligence. In fact, more often than not, the complete opposite is true.

With proper diagnosis, appropriate and timely instruction, hard work, and support from family, teachers, and others, individuals with dyslexia can succeed in school. 

Source: International Dyslexia Association


Procedures for Assessment

  • Assessment for dyslexia will be recommended if a student demonstrates the following:

    • Poor performance in one or more areas of reading and spelling that is unexpected for the student’s age/grade
    • Characteristics and risk factors of dyslexia

    Assessment Process

    Through the §504 process, Troy ISD will complete the evaluation using the following procedures:

    • Notify parents/guardians of the proposal to assess student for dyslexia
    • Inform parents/guardians of their rights under §504
    • Obtain permission from parents/guardians to assess the student for dyslexia
    • Assess the student, being sure that the individuals who administer assessments have training in the evaluation of students for dyslexia

           1. Data Gathering

               Collect academic history; samples of schoolwork, teacher reports, parent reports, interventions/accommodations provided,  classroom/state assessments, observations, outside evaluations, universal screening, attendance, and any other pertinent data.

           2. Formal Assessment

               Formal assessment includes both formal and informal data. All data will be used to determine whether the student demonstrates a pattern of evidence for dyslexia.

    Domains to assess include:

    • Academic skills – Letter knowledge, decoding, word recognition, fluency (rate and accuracy), spelling, and reading comprehension
    • Cognitive processes – Phonological processing, rapid naming, and orthographic processing
    • Additional areas – May include listening comprehension, vocabulary, handwriting, written expression


    Questions to be considered when making a determination of dyslexia:

    • Does the data show a pattern of low reading and spelling skills that is unexpected for the student in relation to the student’s other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction?
    • Does this pattern indicate the student has dyslexia?
    • Does the student have a disability under §504?

Helpful Resources

Books and Movies

  • Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz
  • The Dyslexia Advantage by Brock L. Eide and Fernette F. Eide
  • The Everything Parent’s Guide to Children with Dyslexia by Abigail Marshall
  • The Alphabet War: A Story about Dyslexia by Diane Burton Robb and Gail Piazza
  • Fish in a Tree by Lynda Mullaly Hunt
  • The Big Picture: Rethinking Dyslexia directed by James Redford
  • Dislecksia: The Movie directed by Harvey Hubbell V